What are some common types of brain disorders?

Some common types of brain disorders that are frequently discussed are listed below:

brain disorders

Alzheimer’s Disease Brain Disorder

Alzheimer’s disease also called Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SDAT) or simply Alzheimer’s, is a brain disorder named for German physician Alois Alzheimer. He was the first scientist to describe it in 1906. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive and fatal brain disease and the most common form of dementia. Currently, there is no cure for this disease. Alzheimer’s disease is unique for every individual. Symptoms may include paranoia, drastic changes in mood, confusion, irritability, aggressive behavior, loss of language skills and loss of long-term memory. Over time, the body will not function properly and death will occur. People suffering from Alzheimer’s may appear to withdraw emotion and communication within the later stages of the disease. The cause of Alzheimer’s disease is not understood and there is no cure.

Brain Injuries

Brain injury is sometimes referred to as brain damage which means the degeneration or damage to brain cells significant enough to cause long-term impairment or disability. Brain injuries can occur based on internal or external factors. Certain diseases such as meningitis, malaria, AIDS, and other infections can cause brain damage. Other causes include physical injuries, electrocution, shortage of oxygen, or poisoning. Brain injuries may range from mild to severe.


A seizure is sudden abnormal electrical impulses in a group of cells within the brain and is defined as local or generalized. There are six (6) types of defined generalized seizures that include Grand Mal, Myoclonic, Absence, Atonic, Tonic, and Clonic. A person having a seizure may convulse, collapse, have muscle spasms, loss of consciousness, or may display other types of short-lasting disturbances in the brain and/or levels of consciousness. Symptoms vary from individual-to-individual and based upon the source location of the seizure in the brain. When seizures occur more than once or over an extended time period, this may indicate epilepsy.


A stroke is also referred to as a Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) and is caused by a blocked blood vessel or a blood vessel that bursts. This condition creates a sudden loss of blood to the brain, thus leading to an oxygen deficit to the cells of the brain. Brain cells die when they no longer receive oxygen and nutrients from the blood. A stroke is considered a medical emergency and may cause neurological damage or death. Risk factors for stroke include hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes.

Autism Brain Disorder

Autism is sometimes called classical ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) and is a developmental disorder that typically appears before the age of three. Autism is characterized by difficulty with social interaction and communication coupled with repetitive behavior. Autism affects every person differently by displaying varying degrees of the condition. It occurs in all socioeconomic and ethnic groups. An autistic child may fail to respond to their name and avoid eye contact with people. The rate of autism has increased exponentially worldwide with ratios as high as 60 per 10,000 in the 1990’s. Treatments available today include autism behavior therapies and communication therapy and medication for certain symptoms.

Schizophrenia Brain Disorder

The schizophrenia brain disorder is a chronic mental disorder or brain disease characterized by abnormal perceptions of reality or a distortion of reality. The most common symptoms tend to be paranoid delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking. This disabling brain disease leads to social dysfunction. Medications and treatments can help reduce and control the symptoms of schizophrenia.

Bipolar Brain Disorder

Bipolar disorder or manic depression can involve abrupt periods of shifting moods (poles) and range from extreme excitability (mania) to low periods of depression. A person may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest in certain activities. It’s a serious mental illness, one that can lead to problems with career, family, relationships and even cause suicidal behaviors. Effective treatments are available for bipolar disorder.